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A study to explore the causes of medical workforce shortage in rural maharashtra was commissioned by UNFPA to understand and identify the factors that impede doctors from joining Government Service. The Study was undertaken by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. The study brings out the importance of reviewing human resource policy related to doctors so as to retain doctors in the public sector. The study also reveals that apart from financial incentives, there is a need to look into the working conditions, career pathways, transfer and posting. It brings out that with the fast paced economic development in the country, doctors find alternate opportunities in the private sector and also opt for alternate professions. The study provides evidence to policy makers to formulate appropriate human resource policies for doctors to work in the public health system in rural and remote areas of the State.